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Task 4 — API Throttler, Configurations & Additional Functions

This section explains the steps required to include API throttler functionality into the connector and details the necessary configurations to integrate the connector with Hummingbot.

API Throttler

This section will detail the necessary steps to integrate the AsyncThrottler into the connector. The AsyncThrottler class utilizes asynchronous context managers to throttle API and/or WebSocket requests and avoid reaching the exchange's server rate limits.


The integration of the AsyncThrottler into the connector is entirely optional, but it is recommended to enable a better user experience as well as allowing users to manually configure the usable rate limits per Hummingbot instance.

RateLimit & LinkedLimitWeightPair Data classes

The RateLimit data class is used to represent a rate limit defined by exchanges, while the LinkedLimitWeightPair data class is used to associate an endpoint consumption weight to its API Pool (defaults to 1 if it is not specified)


limit_id can be any arbitrarily assigned value. In the examples given in the next few sections, the limit_id assigned to the various rate limits are either a generic API pool name or the path url of the API endpoint.

class LinkedLimitWeightPair:
    limit_id: str
    weight: int = DEFAULT_WEIGHT

class RateLimit:
    Defines call rate limits typical for API endpoints.

    def __init__(self,
                 limit_id: str,
                 limit: int,
                 time_interval: float,
                 weight: int = DEFAULT_WEIGHT,
                 linked_limits: Optional[List[LinkedLimitWeightPair]] = None,
        :param limit_id: A unique identifier for this RateLimit object, this is usually an API request path url
        :param limit: A total number of calls * weight permitted within time_interval period
        :param time_interval: The time interval in seconds
        :param weight: The weight (in integer) of each call. Defaults to 1
        :param linked_limits: Optional list of LinkedLimitWeightPairs. Used to associate a weight to the linked rate limit.
        self.limit_id = limit_id
        self.limit = limit
        self.time_interval = time_interval
        self.weight = weight
        self.linked_limits = linked_limits or []

Types of Rate Limits

There are several types of rate limits that can be handled by the AsyncThrottler class. The following sections will detail (with examples) how to initialize the necessary RateLimit and the interaction between the connector and the throttler for each of the different rate limit types.


It is important to identify the exchange's rate limit implementation.

1. Rate Limit per endpoint

This refers to rate limits that are applied on a per endpoint basis. For this rate limit type, the key information to retrieve for each endpoint would be its assigned limit and time interval. Note that the time interval is on a rolling basis. For example, if an endpoint's rate limit is 20 and the time interval is 60, this meant that the throttler will check if there are 20 calls made (to the same endpoint) within the past 60 seconds from the current moment.


Examples of existing connectors that utilizes this rate limit implementation are:
(1) Kucoin

Configuring Rate Limits

As mentioned above, the key information to retrieve from the exchange are the limit and time_interval (in seconds) of each endpoint. We will be referencing the connector as an example for exchanges that implement rate limits per endpoint.


Rate Limits for can be found here.

All the rate limits are to be initialized in the file.

    RateLimit(limit_id=CHECK_NETWORK_PATH_URL, limit=100, time_interval=1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=GET_TRADING_RULES_PATH_URL, limit=100, time_interval=1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=CREATE_ORDER_PATH_URL, limit=15, time_interval=0.1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=CANCEL_ORDER_PATH_URL, limit=15, time_interval=0.1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=GET_ACCOUNT_SUMMARY_PATH_URL, limit=3, time_interval=0.1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=GET_ORDER_DETAIL_PATH_URL, limit=30, time_interval=0.1),
    RateLimit(limit_id=GET_OPEN_ORDERS_PATH_URL, limit=3, time_interval=0.1),


time_interval here is in seconds. i.e. The rate limits for CREATE_ORDER_PATH_URL is 15 requests every 100ms

2. Rate Limit Pools

Rate limit pools refer to a group of endpoints that consumes from a single rate limit. For this rate limit type, the key information to retrieve for each endpoint are its assigned pool(s) and its respective limit and time interval.


Examples of existing connectors that utilizes this rate limit implementation are:
(1) Binance, Binance Perpetual
(2) Ndax

Configuring Rate Limits

An example of an exchange implementing this can be seen in the Ndax connector.


All the rate limit are initialized in the file.

# Pool IDs

  # REST API Pool(applies to all REST API endpoints)
  RateLimit(limit_id=HTTP_ENDPOINTS_LIMIT_ID, limit=HTTP_LIMIT, time_interval=MINUTE),
  # WebSocket Pool(applies to all WS requests)
  RateLimit(limit_id=WS_ENDPOINTS_LIMIT_ID, limit=WS_LIMIT, time_interval=MINUTE),
  # Public REST API endpoint
  # WebSocket Auth endpoint


Notice that we assign an abitruary limit id (i.e. HTTP_ENDPOINTS_LIMIT_ID) to the API pools and we use the LinkedLimitWeightPair to assign an endpoint to the API pool. Also do note that an endpoint may belong to multiple other endpoints. It is also worth noting that there can be more complex implementations to API pools as seen in the ByBit Perpetual connector here.

3. Weighted Request Rate Limits

For weighted rate limits, each endpoint is assigned a request weight. Generally, these exchanges would utilize Rate Limit Pools in conjunction with the request weights, where different endpoints will have a different impact on the given pool. Key information to retrieve for these exchanges are the weights for each endpoint, limits and the time intervals for the API Pool.


Examples of existing connectors that utilizes this rate limit implementation are:
(1) Binance, Binance Perpetual

Configuring Rate Limits

An example of an exchange implementing this type of rate limit can be seen in the Binance connector.


Rate Limits for Binance can be found in the API response for the GET /api/v3/exchangeInfo endpoint here.

    # Pools
    RateLimit(limit_id=REQUEST_WEIGHT, limit=1200, time_interval=ONE_MINUTE),
    RateLimit(limit_id=ORDERS, limit=10, time_interval=ONE_SECOND),
    RateLimit(limit_id=ORDERS_24HR, limit=100000, time_interval=ONE_DAY),
    # Weighted Limits
    RateLimit(limit_id=SNAPSHOT_PATH_URL, limit=MAX_REQUEST, time_interval=ONE_MINUTE,
              linked_limits=[LinkedLimitWeightPair(REQUEST_WEIGHT, 50)]),
    RateLimit(limit_id=BINANCE_CREATE_ORDER, limit=MAX_REQUEST, time_interval=ONE_MINUTE,
              linked_limits=[LinkedLimitWeightPair(REQUEST_WEIGHT, 1),
                             LinkedLimitWeightPair(ORDERS, 1),
                             LinkedLimitWeightPair(ORDERS_24HR, 1)]),


Binance implements API Pools as well as weighted requests. In the example above, the BINANCE_CREATE_ORDER endpoint has a request weight of 1 for 3 API Pools, while the SNAPSHOT_PATH_URL endpopint has a request weight of 50 for the REQUEST_WEIGHT API Pool. Notice that the API Pools have different rate limits and time intervals.

Integrating Rate Limits into the connector

The throttler should be consumed by all relevant classes that issue server API calls that are limited by the exchange (either http requests or websocket requests). Namely the Exchange/Derivative, APIOrderBookDataSource and UserStreamDataSource classes. Doing so ensures that the throttler manages all REST API/Websocket requests issued by any of the connector components.

In this example, we will use referencing the NdaxExchange class.

Initializing the Connector

In the __init__() function, we have to initialize the AsyncThrottler.

from import ndax_constants as CONSTANTS

class NdaxExchange(ExchangeBase):
    def __init__(...):
        self._throttler = AsyncThrottler(CONSTANTS.RATE_LIMITS)
        self._order_book_tracker = NdaxOrderBookTracker(
                throttler=self._throttler, trading_pairs=trading_pairs, domain=domain
        self._user_stream_tracker = NdaxUserStreamTracker(
            throttler=self._throttler, auth_assistant=self._auth, domain=domain


Notice that we pass the throttler as arguments to the NdaxOrderBookTracker as well as NdaxUserStreamTracker. This is to ensure that all classes that interact with the Ndax API servers share the same throttler.

Consuming the throttler

To consume the throttler when executing an API request, we simply wrap the contents of the _api_request(...) function within the asynchronous context as seen below.

def _api_request(...):
  async with self._throttler.execute_task(path_url):


The path_url must be match the limit_id of the endpoint as defined in the RATE_LIMITS constant. The throttler will match the path_url to its assigned rate limits or API pools.

Client Configurations

The steps below are required so the Hummingbot client would recognise the new connector package.

In, include the new connector package into the packages list as shown:

packages = [

In hummingbot/templates/conf_global_TEMPLATE.yml, add entries with null value for each key in your utils KEYS. You will also need to increment template_version by one. For example:

template_version: [+1]

[new_connector]_api_key: null
[new_connector]_secret_key: null

In hummingbot/templates/conf_fee_overrides_TEMPLATE.yml, add maker and taker fee entries (use fee_amount when your FEE_TYPE is FlatFee). You will also need to increment template_version by one. For example:

template_version: [+1]


Additional Utility Functions

(Optional) Add members for Ethereum type connector

Member Type Description
USE_ETHEREUM_WALLET bool True if connector requires user's Ethereum wallet, which the user can set it up using connect command.
FEE_TYPE str Set this to FlatFee if the trading fee is fixed flat fee per transaction, the DEFAULT_FEES will then be in the flat fee unit.
FEE_TOKEN str Token name in FlatFee fee type, i.e. ETH.

(Optional) Add other API domains

This is only relevant if:

  • Exchange supports different domains by changing API URLs domains, i.e. & or &
  • Exchange supports a testnet environment.
Member Type Description
OTHER_DOMAINS List[str] A list of other domain connector names, will appear to users as new connectors they can choose.
OTHER_DOMAINS_PARAMETER Dict[str, str] A dictionary of additional domain parameter for each OTHER_DOMAIN, this parameter (string) is passed in during connector, and order book tracker __init__.
OTHER_DOMAINS_EXAMPLE_PAIR Dict[str, str] An example of a supported trading pair for each domain.
OTHER_DOMAINS_DEFAULT_FEES Dict[str, List[Decimal]] A dictionary of default trading fees [maker fee and taker fee] for each domain.
OTHER_DOMAINS_KEYS Dict[str, Dict[str, ConfigVar]] A dictionary of required keys for each domain.


If domain settings are used, ensure your connector uses the domain parameter to update base API URLs and set the exchange name correctly. Refer to Binance connector on how to achieve this.

Last update: 2021-09-27
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